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Tuesday, May 30

  1. page wikis edited ... with web 2.0 {icon-intro1} {icon-blog1} {icon-chat1} {icon-dv1} {button-DS-blue1} {i…

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    - ► category -
    2.0: Wikis are perhaps the ultimate web 2.0 tool. They allow users to collaboratively create multimodal documents, and comment on and edit each other's work. Thus, they relate very much to the principle of collective intelligence. While some wikis have partly optimised their displays for mobile devices, dedicated mobile wiki services or apps are unusual (see Going Mobile below).
    - ► what - Wikis are collaboratively authored websites. The image at left shows the logo of the largest and best-known wiki, Wikipedia. Note, however,

    Please note
    that Wikipedia is just one example of a wiki: there are countless wikis, large and small, on the web, covering all kinds of subjects. Many of them have been set up by educational institutions, where they may be used with students of all ages, from kindergarten to tertiary level.
    Fully public wikis, like Wikipedia, allow anyone, anywhere in the world, to make additions and modifications (with restrictions on pages covering sensitive topics, such as some international conflicts or biographies of political figures). Partially public wikis, like this E-language wiki, are publicly viewable but can only be edited by those with a password. Fully private wikis, such as those often used at school level, require users to have a password even to view the wiki.
    - ► why - Wikis rely on the principle of collective intelligence and the notion that the product of collaborative work is often superior to what can be created by a single individual. Advantages for students include the ability to draft and redraft work collaboratively, with each contributor adding to and modifying the work of others. Nowadays it is also easy to embed images, videos, RSS feeds and other dynamic content. Wikis are the perfect platform for social constructivist and community of practice approaches, and they are ideal for promoting a sense of a learning community. Feedback can be received from the entire internet (with a public wiki) or class peers (with a private wiki).
    Standard wiki functions, often shown as a series of tabs at the top of wiki pages, include:
    discussion: every wiki page normally includes a discussion function, giving access to an asynchronous discussion board. This allows users to discuss
    the content of a given page.
    this function allows changes to be tracked by users. The history function is a wiki's inbuilt security mechanism: if a page is vandalised or, more likely, if material is accidentally deleted, it is easy to undo these changes by going one step back in the history log. The same history function also makes it possible for teachers to track individual students' contributions to group projects, because each change (including the identity of the author in a system where users require a password) is logged.
    subscribe: most wikis allow users to subscribe to an RSS feed so that they can be notified of changes made to pages they have chosen to watch.
    - ► how - For a light-hearted introduction to the principles underpinning wikis, see Lee LeFever's video Wikis in Plain English. For a more extensive general introduction, see Wiki35. If you're interested in setting up your own wiki, see Russell Stannard's video How to make wikis or Nik Peachey's Creating a wiki. For ideas on how to use wikis in education, see Educational Wikis, or Nik Peachey's Using wikis with EFL students and Using wikis for teacher development. WikiIndex is a wiki about wikis - and includes links to wikis on a vast array of topics.
    - ► where - Like blogs, wikis can be quickly and easily set up at no cost, though many wiki services work on a freemium model where payment is required to have advertisements removed or to access additional functionality such as increased privacy options. Some wiki services offer enhanced functionality to educators at no additional cost; it is simply a matter of registering a wiki as being for educational purposes.
    The most popular wiki services with educators are currently Wikispaces (which hosts this E-language wiki) and PBworks (formerly PBwiki). Alternatives include Wikia, Wikidot and WikiFoundry (formerly Wetpaint). Some website services, such as Google Sites,
    has now also offer wiki-style functionality. It's worth looking at a few wiki and website services before choosing which onebeen migrated to use. The WikiMatrix site, which makes it easy to compare wikis, might help you to make your decision. For tips on how to incorporate different kinds of multimedia functionality into Wikispaces without knowledge of html code, see Getting Tricky with Wikis.
    - ► going mobile - Some wiki services, such as Wikispaces, have mobile-optimised versions which are displayed automatically when they are accessed from mobile devices. With the demise of Picowiki, there no longer appear to be any wiki services designed specifically for mobile devices.
    - ► examples - As noted above, the most famous wiki is of course Wikipedia, which has versions in many languages. For an example of how a typical Wikipedia article evolves, see Jon Udell's screencast of the "Heavy metal umlaut" article. You might like to compare Wikipedia with an example of a moderated wiki such as the Encyclopedia of Life, launched in early 2008.
    Examples of academic wikis include Lawrence Lessig's Anti-Lessig Reader, where readers are invited to critique his work. We are increasingly seeing wikis being used to add a collaborative element to authorship. A good example of a wiki used for organisation-wide communication and collaboration is the Smithsonian Library's Tech Services Wiki.
    While many school-based wikis are not publicly viewable, some exceptions include: flatplanet (an environmental wiki collaboratively built by high school classes in Canada and the UK); Y11 Evolution (a biology wiki based at a Hong Kong school where students collaboratively 'wrote the textbook' in a Wikipedia-style format); and The 50 Greatest Rockers of All Time (based at a US school). For further examples, see Examples of Educational Wikis.
    You can also see screen captures of a number of wiki projects on the student projects page of this wiki, including e-portfolios created on the Wikispaces platform.
    - ► variations - Blikis, also known as blokis, fuse key features of blogs and wikis. While blikis were widely discussed for a couple of years around 2008-2010, little is heard about them nowadays.
    To publish constant instantly online, without the need to set up a website, blog or wiki, try Check This.
    - ► dangers - Collaboration doesn't just happen by itself: students need detailed instructions, and activities need careful scaffolding, in order to ensure wide engagement. Collective intelligence is not a predetermined outcome; collective ignorance is also a possibility, meaning that a teacher needs to keep a close eye on students' emerging ideas, and intervene if and when necessary. As with any group project, aggression and bullying can occur, so it's a good idea to set up rules of netiquette beforehand, ideally in consultation with students, and to have a moderator who keeps an eye on proceedings.
    Most web 2.0 services, including wiki services, offer different levels of privacy. With young learners, or in contexts where learners reveal their identities, it may be best to make wikis entirely private. With older students and less personally sensitive content, it may be appropriate to make wikis partly or wholly public, so that they can be viewed by others and may even receive feedback.
    - ► more - For academic and journalistic references about wikis, see the E-learning references page. You'll also find current information in the E-learning tag cloud.
    Credits: The image above left shows the Wikipedia logo. I owe the Getting Tricky with Wikis link to Tricia Green, the John Udell link to Vance Stevens, and the wikidot link to Vanessa Varis.
    Contact: There's no such thing as a finished wiki. Like all wikis, this one is a work in progress and there will be changes from time to time in organisation, content and links. However, don't let that stop you from contacting me at any time with comments, suggestions or questions.
    (view changes)
    2:53 am
  2. 12:09 am
  3. page voip edited ... with web 2.0 {icon-intro1} {icon-blog1} {icon-chat1} {icon-dv1} {button-DS-blue1} {i…

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    {CC-Skype-1.jpg} - ► category - VoIP, or Voice over Internet Protocol, permits internet telephony on desktop or laptop computers. The best-known
    2.0: VoIP service, Skype (see icon on left), is also available in an app version for mobile devices where, along with other similar apps, it offers an alternative to voice calls through a telephone service (see Going Mobile below).
    - ► what - VoIP refers to voice calls made over

    Please note that
    the internet, though nowadays it often takes the formcontent of video calls, often with supplementary text channels.
    - ► why - VoIP is an ideal tool for conducting live interviews or pair and small group discussions. These can be recorded and reviewed or transcribed later, and well-designed oral tasks can also form the basis for assessments. There are obvious applications of VoIP for language learning in particular, which
    this page has lednow been migrated to a number of services building language learning functionality around Skype or similar VoIP technology.
    - ► how - For information on using Skype and recording conversations for language learning, see Nik Peachey's Skype Part 1: Recording Audio and Skype Part 2: Online Workspace.
    - ► where - In addition to the well-known Skype, other VoIP services include Google+ Hangouts and Oovoo. For a fuller list, see Wikipedia's Comparison of VoIP Software.
    Language exchange services can help to organise voice chat, often through Skype, and often with accompanying text channels. Examples include The Mixxer, My Language Exchange and the SharedTalk Language Exchange Network. eTandem is a more generalised service for finding language learning partners.
    Recordings of VoIP calls can be made using free software, such as Pamela (which allows free recordings of up to 15 minutes) and the many alternatives listed in MakeUseOf's The Quickest, Easiest Way to Record Skype.
    - ► going mobile - Apps such as Skype and Tango provide alternatives to voice telephony on smart devices, as does Apple's FaceTime on the iPhone. This can help avoid telephone costs in areas covered by wifi. All of the above apps offer a video channel in addition to an audio channel. See also Variations below.
    {Weixin.png} - ► variations - Variations on VoIP include audio discussion boards (sometimes called voiceboards), which can be set up through Gong or Voxopop. Audio messages can also be exchanged on apps such as FaceTime, WhatsApp and Weixin (微信) (known as WeChat in the international market; see icon on right), and the HelloTalk app designed specifically for language practice. With the SpeakingPal app, learners can chat to an animated video character, and thanks to speech recognition technology, they receive feedback on their own responses.
    - ► more - For academic and journalistic references about VoIP, see the E-learning references page.
    Credits: The image of the Skype logo above left is available under a Creative Commons licence from Phil Wolff's Photostream on Flickr; the original can be found here. I owe several links to Claire Pinks.
    Contact: There's no such thing as a finished wiki. Like all wikis, this one is a work in progress and there will be changes from time to time in organisation, content and links. However, don't let that stop you from contacting me at any time with comments, suggestions or questions.
    (view changes)
    12:08 am

Monday, May 29

  1. page vodcasting edited ... with web 2.0 {icon-intro1} {icon-blog1} {icon-chat1} {icon-dv1} {button-DS-blue1} {i…

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    - ► category - Vodcasts, like podcasts, can be used in a web 1.0 manner for information transmission, or they can be used in a web 2.0 manner where students create their own vodcasts. Vodcasts are traditionally associated with e-learning rather than m-learning, but with the explosion of video viewing on mobile devices, especially those with 4G connectivity, vodcasts may be on their way to becoming a key m-learning technology. Common videosharing services are typically available in mobile app versions (see Going Mobile below).
    - ► what - Vodcasts are much like podcasts except
    2.0: Vodcasting
    Please note
    that they involve video rather than (just) audio. Like podcasts, they are distributed on the web via syndicated feeds such as RSS, so once you've subscribed, you'll be prompted to download new episodes as they become available. However, as with podcasting, there has been considerable slippage in the usecontent of the term: itthis page has become common to hear people refer to any online videos, whether syndicated or not, as vodcasts.
    - ► why - Option 1 Vodcasts can be used in a web 1.0 manner, with students simply watching videos which are either professionally produced, or prerecorded by their teachers. Students may be asked to watch such videos in their own time before class as part of a flipped classroom approach. Although vodcasts lack the flexibility of podcasts since it is necessary to watch as well as listen to them, it is becoming increasingly common for users to watch vodcasts on mobile devices (see Going Mobile below).
    Option 2 Vodcasts can be used in a more web 2.0 manner, with students being asked to create their own videos. Vodcasts are often used as a platform for digital storytelling, and can be used to showcase both individual and collaborative student projects. Once the resulting vodcasts have
    now been fully edited and polished up, they can be published on the web for feedback from peers, parents and friends, and the wider internet.
    - ► how - Option 1 Vodcasts can be found on numerous sites, including many which have an educational orientation, such as the Khan Academy, TED, and WatchKnowLearn. Services like YouTube allow the creation of playlists, many of which may be educational (see for example the image of the Web 2.0 Tools and Technologies playlist at the top of this page). For a fuller list of sources of vodcasts, see the videosharing section of the social sharing page on this wiki.
    Option 2 Producing a vodcast typically involves several steps:
    recording a video using a video camera, regular digital camera, or mobile phone
    editing the video on a computer using common software such as iMovie (on a Mac) or Windows Movie Maker (on a PC). Alternative video editing software is listed on the E-tools page of this wiki.
    uploading the video
    migrated to a service such as those listed under videosharing on the social sharing page of this wiki
    - ► going mobile - With video consumption exploding on 4G-enabled smart devices, vodcasting is increasingly a mobile tool. The major videosharing services, like Blip, Vimeo and YouTube, are available in mobile app versions. What's more, the cameras on contemporary mobile phones and tablets can be used to record vodcasts. With the help of appropriate apps, these devices - especially tablets - can then be used to edit and polish up vodcasts ready for subsequent publishing and sharing.
    - ► examples - Many sources of professionally produced videos can be found on the social sharing page of this wiki. In addition, more and more TV stations are beginning to make broadcast material available at any time for users to catch up on; examples include the ABC's iView (Australia), Channel 4's 4oD (UK), or CNN's Video (USA). The line between television, video and vodcasting is starting to blur.
    Good examples of teacher-produced vodcasts can be seen on Mr Derby's 12 Literature 3A/3B Class Blog, which supports a flipped classroom approach. Good examples of student-produced vodcasts can be accessed through ACMI's Generator (Australia) or HKIS's DragonMedia (Hong Kong).
    - ► variations - Variations which are useful if you don't want to show your face, or don't want students to show their faces, include services like Voki or Blabberize, where animated characters 'speak' audio files on your behalf. For educational tips, see the Voki for Education Blog. Other similar tools can be found under animations on the E-tools page of this wiki. Apps with similar functionality include Tellagami.
    GoAnimate and Muvizu allow the creation of animated videos. Machinima movies, which can be easily produced by teachers or students in virtual worlds or gaming environments, also hold considerable potential.
    Knowmia is a service which makes it easy to create educational videos. VideoScribe is a service for making animated whiteboard videos in the style of the well-known RSA Animate whiteboard videos.
    TED-Ed, launched by TED in 2012, offers customisable lessons built around videos, and allows educators to create their own lessons built around any YouTube video. EduCanon is another service teachers can use to add information or quiz 'bulbs' to videos. Zaption and EDpuzzle are services for adding interactive quiz questions into videos.
    - ► dangers - If students show their faces or reveal their identities in vodcasts, it may be advisable to share them only in password-protected online spaces. Where students plan on sharing their work more widely, animation services such as those listed above under Variations may provide suitable alternatives to traditional video footage.
    Credits: The Web 2.0 Tools and Technologies playlist image comes from YouTube. I owe the Mr Derby blog link to Paula Beck, the Tellagami link to Paul Forster, and the VideoScribe link to Adrian Smith & Olivia Cassar.
    Contact: There's no such thing as a finished wiki. Like all wikis, this one is a work in progress and there will be changes from time to time in organisation, content and links. However, don't let that stop you from contacting me at any time with comments, suggestions or questions.
    (view changes)
    5:35 am
  2. page virtual-worlds edited ... with web 2.0 {icon-intro1} {icon-blog1} {icon-chat1} {icon-dv1} {button-DS-blue1} {i…

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    - ► category -
    2.0: Virtual worlds have much in common with web 2.0, given
    Please note
    that they facilitate multimodal interaction and collaboration across the internet. Some people view them as representing a push in a web 3.0 direction, where web 3.0 is conceivedcontent of as a geospatial web. From one point of view, virtual worlds represent the cutting edge of web-/internet-based technology; from another, they have been partly bypassed by mobile technologies which do not focus on a separate digital realm, but rather focus on (re-)integrating the virtual and the real through augmented reality and similar paradigms.
    - ► what - Virtual worlds (occasionally also referred to as MUVEs, or Multi-User Virtual Environments) are simulated 3-dimensional environments, much like gaming environments environments, which you enter with a character known as an avatar.
    - ► why - Virtual worlds present ideal opportunities for immersive, situated learning in a simulated environment. Students can visit museums and galleries whose layout matches that of their real-world counterparts, as can be seen in the replica of the Dresden Old Masters Gallery in Second Life (see image below right). They can visit simulations to learn about everything from the structure of molecules to customs in Ancient Rome. They can also practise skills in areas ranging from patient-doctor consultations to urban design, building up confidence before embarking on real-world encounters or entering real-world scenarios. Given the linguistic nature of most avatar-to-avatar interactions, there is great potential for language learners, with effective communication depending also on the development of multimodal literacy.
    The possibilities for interactive and collaborative learning in virtual worlds have become evident as educational institutions have experimented with running courses and classes in these online environments. It is possible to recreate most learning environments - from lecture theatres to tutorial rooms - as well as key facilities; thus, it's possible to play audio recordings, show videos, or give PowerPoint presentations, as can be seen in the image (top left) taken in the Conference Room on the University of Western Australia's virtual campus in Second Life.
    There has been some discussion of situated cognition, based on the notion that embodiment has a major impact on the way we learn. Although the avatars' bodies, like virtual worlds themselves, are simulated, it may be that
    this affects the nature of the learning that can and does take place there. A great deal of related research is now taking place in gaming environments, which combine many of the features of virtual worlds with game-oriented goals.
    {SL-2009_-_Alte_Meister_3C.png} - ► how - The best-known of today's virtual worlds is Second Life, although there are numerous others, and although some educators have now shifted their attention to OpenSim (software that allows users to create their own virtual worlds; for further details, see below under Where).
    For more information about Second Life, see Pia Klaar's video Second Life: Education and Professional Development: Classrooms without Borders, which is also embedded on the machinima
    page of the E-language wiki, along with other examples of videos made in and/or about Second Life. See also Laura Van's Second Life Education Machinima and MrKlug1's Second Life Video on Education (focused primarily on science learning).
    You might also like to take a look at Second Life's YouTube Channel, the Education section of the Second Life Wiki, or the Second Life for Educators group on Facebook. Try looking up 'Second Life' on Flickr for a range of photos taken in-world, including in educational settings. Language teachers may be particularly interested in Graham Davies' ICT4LT section on Second Life and Nik Peachey's Teaching Speaking in Second Life. There are interesting educational possibilities in machinima movies, which students can make relatively easily in virtual worlds or gaming environments.
    - ► where - Some virtual worlds can be accessed on the web, though others, including Second Life, still require users to download specialised software.
    To enter Second Life, you need to sign up for a free account, which includes choosing the name and the initial appearance of your avatar. When the registration process is complete, you can download the necessary free software to your computer. Once you're logged in, you can visit the different areas of Second Life using the in-world teleport facility.
    Other virtual worlds you may like to visit include There and Twinity. There are a number of virtual worlds for children, which typically roll virtual world, social networking and gaming features into a single platform. These include Club Penguin, Habbo (originally Habbo Hotel), Moshi Monsters, and Whyville. Many of them have very large numbers of users. Note that although Teen Second Life
    has now been discontinued, teens can enter Second Life subjectmigrated to certain restrictions. See Sharon Burns' Virtual World Tour 2008 for an overview of the educational possibilities of eight virtual worlds, or Gary Hayes' The Social Virtual World's a Stage for a brief overview of 50 worlds.
    As noted above, Second Life has long been educators' preferred virtual world, but some interest has shifted towards OpenSim (see the screen capture on the left). OpenSim allows users to create their own customised virtual worlds. These can be accessed in a variety of ways, including on the web. OpenSim can be used to create virtual worlds which are similar to Second Life and can also be accessed with the Second Life software. Other sites where you can create your own virtual worlds include Active Worlds, Kaneva and Multiverse.
    - ► more - For academic and journalistic references about virtual worlds, see the E-learning references page. You'll also find current information in the E-learning tag cloud.
    Credits: The SL images above are screenshots taken by Mark Pegrum in the virtual world Second Life in September 2009. I owe the There link to Nik Peachey.
    Contact: There's no such thing as a finished wiki. Like all wikis, this one is a work in progress and there will be changes from time to time in organisation, content and links. However, don't let that stop you from contacting me at any time with comments, suggestions or questions.
    (view changes)
    4:47 am

Monday, May 8

  1. page social-sharing edited ... with web 2.0 {icon-intro1} {icon-blog1} {icon-chat1} {icon-dv1} {button-DS-blue1} {i…

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    Get this widget at
    - ► category -
    2.0: Social sharing platforms are classic web 2.0 services which allow users to access and contribute to global conversations. Thus, they can link neatly to
    Please note that
    the notioncontent of collective intelligence. A number of major social sharing platforms have app versions for mobile devices and in some cases mobile app use may surpass web use. The use of apps on location-aware smart devices introduces a geolocation element to this kind of social sharing (see Going Mobile below).
    - ► what - Social sharing services, many of which have important educational and/or professional uses, facilitate the sharing of resources like text (with common services including Scribd and Box), audio (AudioBoom), slides (SlideShare and SlideSnack), photos (Flickr and Picasa) and videos (YouTube and TeacherTube). Most of these services allow you to make your materials either public or private, though there may be a cost attached to the latter. The image to the left and the widget to the right (the latter created by Roy Tanck and available here) both display photos from Mark Pegrum's Flickr photostream.
    Despite the apparent specialisation of these services (with a focus on text, or photos, etc) many of them, including textsharing services, in fact host multimedia documents and artefacts. Social sharing services typically offer space for commentary on the documents and artefacts being shared, as well as encouraging users to connect with each other and network around the shared materials. In fact, social sharing services are arguably a subset of social networking services, since they share many features with the latter.
    Note that social sharing services differ somewhat from document sharing applications such as Google Drive (formerly Google Docs) or Zoho, which offer word processing, spreadsheet and other related functions to a small number of users collaborating on a given document. While true social sharing services do not have editors or gatekeepers, in recent years we've seen the emergence of text hosting and video hosting sites, in particular, which are quality-controlled. Some examples are included below under textsharing and videosharing. At the same time, some of the original social sharing services now also host professionally produced material, including material for purchase.
    ► why - Social sharing services provide easy access to a large number of multimedia resources with educational value. Many of these are available under a Creative Commons licence - including more than 100 million photos on Flickr alone - meaning that they can generally be freely used by teachers and students. It is also possible for educators to share their own materials on these services. Students, too, can post their multimedia creations on such services, sharing them with and receiving feedback from class peers (via private channels) or the wider internet (via public channels). Two key advantages of storing multimedia materials on social sharing services are: 1) you don't use up your storage capacity on your own website, blog or wiki, and 2) you can usually obtain an embed code provided by the social sharing service so that you can embed your stored documents and artefacts on your website, blog or wiki. For example, the embed code for a YouTube video can be obtained by clicking the Share and then Embed functions beneath the video screen; the screen capture on the left above shows these functions for Lee Lefever's video Social Media in Plain English. Once you have copied the embed code, you need to paste it into your website, blog or wiki, using a widget, gadget or multimedia function.
    - ► where - The most common services on which educators and students share materials include Flickr, Picasa, YouTube, TeacherTube and SlideShare. For more extensive lists of options, see below.
    - ► types - There are platforms for many different kinds of social sharing, including audiosharing, photosharing, textsharing, videosharing, multimedia sharing and news sharing. Some services worth exploring are listed below.
    Audiosharing► Audiosharing
    AudioBoom allows users to share audio files.
    Forvo allows users to upload and share pronunciations of words in different languages.
    There are a number of music and remix sharing sites listed on the E-tools
    page under Creative Commons & free materials.
    Murmur collects oral history interviews linked to city map locations.
    For a service that adds audio commentary to images, see the entry on VoiceThread under Multimedia sharing below.
    Try Podcast Alley or PodOmatic as platforms for sharing podcasts.
    ► Photosharing
    Flickr allows users to upload their own photos, and view and comment on public photos uploaded by others. (Photos can be made private or public.) Public photos can be tagged not only by those who upload them but by others who view them, so Flickr is sometimes seen as a good example of a folksonomy. It was also the first site to make use of tag clouds. Students can upload, organise and tag their own photos, as well as linking them to the places they were taken on a world map. For a list of Flickr applications, see The App Garden.
    Photobucket, Picasa and Shutterfly are alternatives to Flickr. Note that nowadays many photosharing services also permit videosharing.
    Instagram is an app for sharing photos on mobile devices, usually filtered through one of a series of inbuilt lenses.
    Note that many graphics programmes allow you to anonymise images by pixellating, blurring out, or covering faces and other identifying features. Other options include Facepixelizer and the apps Touch Blur and Touch Blur Free.
    Fotonea and PicMonkey allow you to create static photo collages.
    Cincopa allows you to create interactive photo galleries.
    PhotoPeach and Photosnack produce slideshows from photos. Many website and wiki services allow you to automatically import slideshows from Flickr or Picasa. For an example of a slideshow imported from Flickr, see Mark Pegrum's bio page.
    Animoto and Smilebox allow you to create slideshows of images with accompanying text and a soundtrack.
    Photosynth synthesises overlapping photos to produce a 3D effect, and the resulting images can then be shared.
    Popplet allows you to produce a mind map annotated with images and text.
    Thinglink allows you to add commentary and links to hotspots within images.
    Canva provides free graphic design tools and a huge selection of photos; you can create your own designs individually or collaboratively, and you can save the results or share them on social media platforms.
    For a service that adds audio commentary to images, see the entry on VoiceThread under Multimedia sharing below.
    ► Slidesharing
    The main slidesharing service is the appropriately named SlideShare, which allows you to easily share and embed the slideshows you've uploaded.
    SlideSnack is a similar service to SlideShare.
    Prezi is alternative presentation format to PowerPoint, and allows presentations to be embedded.
    Projeqt and ProjeqtEd allow the creation of dynamic slide presentations, which can also be embedded.
    Bunkr and Microsoft's Sway are two newer slideshow creation platforms.
    ► Textsharing
    Scribd is a service for sharing text-based documents, though they may also include images. It allows you to embed text in a variety of other platforms.
    Box is a secure content sharing service that allows you to embed your texts in a variety of other platforms.
    Docstoc is another service which allows free sharing of educational texts.
    Flipbook services, like FlipSnack, PageFlip-Flap and Publitas, generate digital booklets from pdf files. You can share these online.
    Diigo allows the highlighting and annotation of web pages.
    Curriculet is a service that allows teachers to add annotations and quiz questions to online texts.
    Inspirably is a service for creating and sharing attractive presentations of quotes.
    It is
    has now also possible for teachers and/or students to publish their own books using the Kindle Direct Publishing or iBooks Author software.
    Sites akin to social sharing services, but which involve stricter editing or gatekeeping procedures, include:
    Services like cK-12 and Flatworld (note that the latter is a paid service) allow teachers to contribute to online textbooks and compose their own textbooks using others' contributions.
    Open educational resources sites such as MIT Open Courseware and the British OU's OpenLearn.
    Many e-book services offer the option of highlighting and annotations, which can be shared between readers. Amazon's Kindle service, for example, indicates areas of purchased books which have
    been highlighted by past readers. Inkling produces educational books which can be annotated with users' questions and comments.
    ► Videosharing
    YouTube allows users
    migrated to upload their own videos, and view and comment on publicly viewable videos uploaded by others. (Videos on YouTube can be made private or public.) The TechWelkin infographic to the right gives an overview of YouTube as of mid-2012. It is now possible to watch YouTube videos on a clean screen stripped of comments and other material through services including quietube, SafeShare, and ViewPure. SafeTube is an app which screens YouTube for material unsuitable for minors, while YoouKids allows teachers and parents to create educational playlists from YouTube which are synced to children's devices.
    Other general video services include Blip and Vimeo. Secure video hosting is also offered by Sendvid (formerly VideoBam).
    Other educational video services include TeacherTube and YouTube EDU. It's also worth checking out the article 197 Educational YouTube Channels You Should Know About.
    Ustream allows users to broadcast live video.
    Your Truman Show allows videos to be woven into personal narrative threads.
    YooouuuTuuube offers unusual multi-screen presentation formats for YouTube videos.
    For animation services like Voki and Blabberize, see the vodcasting page of the E-language wiki.
    TED-Ed, launched by TED (see below) in 2012, offers customisable lessons built around videos, and allows educators to create their own lessons built around any YouTube video.
    EduCanon is another service teachers can use to add information or quiz 'bulbs' to videos.
    Sites akin to social sharing services, but which involve stricter editing or gatekeeping procedures, include:
    TED, Big Think, Keen Talks and VideoLectures, which collect talks by leading thinkers.
    The Khan Academy, The Futures Channel and WatchKnowLearn, which present edited selections of high-quality educational videos.
    TED-Ed, which presents short, animated lessons by skilled educators.
    TinyTube, a moderated site containing educational videos for children.
    SchoolTube, a moderated site where students can view and share videos.
    For an excellent list of educational videos, many of which fit into this category, see Curtis Bonk's Shared Online Video Resources page.
    ► Multimedia sharing
    Museum Box allows users to create multimedia information boxes, displayed as cubes, which combine text, images, audio, video and weblinks.
    PowToon allows you to create animated presentations.
    VoiceThread offers the possibility of multiple individuals adding audio or text commentary to images. Examples of student VoiceThreads can be seen in the VoiceThread Digital Library and in the ESL/EFL Student Showcase.
    Glogster (now Glogster EDU) allows users to create multimedia posters called 'glogs'. These are a good way of bringing together multiple media in a compact online format. Like blogs, they incorporate a comments feature.
    Checkthis is a similar service.
    Pinterest allows the sharing of images, videos and commentary in a bulletin board format.
    Blendspace is a service for teachers, which allows you to collate online materials and activities for students.
    Services which fuse folksonomy and social sharing elements include Bag The Web, which allows the creation of curated collections of materials on a topic; LessonPaths (formerly MentorMob EDU), which allows teachers or students to compose 'playlists' of materials related to a given topic; and eduClipper, which allows you to collate and share educational resources.
    For examples of different kinds of multimedia documents created by students and teachers, see the Talk with Media wiki. For examples of work by language students using services like Blabberize, Glogster, VoiceThread, Voki, Wordle and Xtranormal, see the E-language Exemplars wiki.
    News sharing
    ► News sharing
    On social news sites like Digg and Reddit (see icon on right), stories rise or fall depending on user ratings.
    - ► going mobile - Some major social sharing services, including photosharing services like Flickr and videosharing services like
    Blip, Vimeo and YouTube, are available in mobile app versions. An example of a well-known mobile-first social sharing app, as mentioned under Photosharing above, is Instagram. Because they are location-aware, smart devices allow easy tagging of multimedia materials which are recorded on mobile devices and shared through mobile social sharing services. See the geosocial networking page of the E-language wiki for more information on this related area.
    - ► dangers - As with a number of other web 2.0 tools, the main dangers for students are a lack of privacy, and inappropriate feedback. To avoid problems, private channels can be set up on social sharing services and made visible only to class members or, in the case of public channels, students can be warned not to show their faces or include identifying information. A very different problem is a lack of feedback on work posted by students, but this can be compensated for by a task structure which requires students to comment on a minimum number of their peers' creations.
    It is also important to take into consideration copyright law, especially when it comes to reusing and sharing images. In addition to educational exemptions allowed in many legal systems, teachers and students can make use of Creative Commons materials, which can generally be freely used for educational purposes (subject to licencing conditions, such as the need to include an attribution). See the list of Creative Commons & Free Materials on the E-tools page of this wiki.
    - ► more - For academic and journalistic references about social sharing, see the E-learning references page. You'll also find current information in the E-learning tag cloud.
    Credits: The image at the top left shows a collection mosaic from Mark Pegrum's Flickr photostream, as does the widget on the top right; the widget was created by Roy Tanck and is available here. The YouTube embed code image comes from the page for Lee Lefever's video Social Media in Plain English. The YouTube infographic comes from TechWelkin. The Reddit icon comes from My Social Buttons (since discontinued). I owe the Animoto link to Kim Hartley, the Cincopa link to Jay Han Gan, the Curriculet and EduCanon links to Paul Forster, the Docstoc link to Nicola Chapman, the Facepixelizer and Touch Blur links to Fiona Mayne, the Museum Box and VoiceThread links to Nik Peachey, the E-language Exemplars link to Penny Coutas, the Fotonea and Photosnack links to Martha Alvarado, the Glogster EDU link to Mary Lee, the Inspirably link to Karen Choi, the PowToon link to Hannah Gabb, the Projeqt link to Marianthe Loucataris, the Publitas link to Deborah Leicester, and the SlideSnack link to Sasha Claughton.
    Contact: There's no such thing as a finished wiki. Like all wikis, this one is a work in progress and there will be changes from time to time in organisation, content and links. However, don't let that stop you from contacting me at any time with comments, suggestions or questions.
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    4:38 am
  2. page social-networking edited ... with web 2.0 {icon-intro1} {icon-blog1} {icon-chat1} {icon-dv1} {button-DS-blue1} {i…

    with web 2.0
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    - ► category -
    2.0: Social networking services (also known as social networking sites, both abbreviated as SNSs) are classic web 2.0 tools which foster interaction and sharing. All major social networking platforms have app versions for mobile devices, allowing them to be used in connection with geolocation software on smart devices. In 2013, Mark Zuckerberg, founder and CEO of Facebook, the largest and best-known social networking service, stated that Facebook has become a mobile company, with more users accessing it through apps on mobile devices than through a web browser on a laptop or desktop computer. This reflects the increasing migration of web 2.0 services into the mobile space (see Going Mobile below).
    - ► what - Social networking services provide platforms where users can typically:
    set up a personal profile page where they can post status updates in the form of text, images, audio and/or video files
    keep up with their friends' and contacts' status updates through a newsfeed
    communicate with their friends and contacts through a variety of interactive channels
    assemble and display their interests in the form of links to pages or groups
    set up their own public or private pages or groups
    use third-party applications, such as gaming apps
    In 2011-2012, Facebook, shifted to a Timeline model, where users' full histories are displayed as a kind of narrative of their lives. The most popular educational social networking service, Edmodo, shares many of Facebook's features, as well as its appearance, but does not work with the Timeline model.
    For an overview of the recent, dramatic growth of social media, especially social networking services, see the YouTube video Social Media Revolution (on the right below). Although presented from a business perspective, it gives viewers a sense of the scale and impact of social media. For an overview of the size of the major social media services, including social networking services, see the Social Media 2014 inforgraphic.
    - ► why - Social networking services represent a fundamental shift away from the content-oriented web (where webpages were usually about topics) to the person-oriented web (where webpages are about people). They are thus the model for PLNs, PLEs and e-portfolios.
    Individuals' profile pages on social networking services like Facebook can be used as spaces to display examples of work; to present links to work on other sites; to gather personal connections; and to include links to social or educational networks. The interactive channels on these pages can be a way for students to collaborate with each other on group projects outside of class time. In some ways, then, profile pages can function as mini-PLEs.
    Pages or groups on social networking services like Facebook can be used to facilitate communication about group activities and projects; to gather and display drafts and final versions of project work; to maintain ongoing social, educational and/or professional contacts; and to build networks. In some ways, pages or groups can also function like mini-VLEs. It's interesting to

    note that there are already numerous educational and professional groups which 'meet' on Facebook.
    - ► how - For a light-hearted and clear explanation of social networking, try Lee Lefever's video Social Networking in Plain English. For guidelines on how to use Facebook in education, see The Edublogger's The Why and How of Using Facebook for Educators, the site Facebook for Educators, or the beta site Education Social.
    - ► where - While Facebook, with some 1.3 billion users, is the leading social networking service everywhere it is accessible, alternative social networking services include Bebo, Friendster and MySpace , along with the Korean Cyworld (싸이월드), the Japanese Mixi (ミクシィ) and the Russian VK (ВКонтакте), though all have lost ground to Facebook. Note that Google's Orkut was discontinued in 2014. A newer contender is Google+, released in 2011. Despite widely praised features - some of which appear to have prompted changes to Facebook - it has yet to make significant inroads into Facebook's market share. China has a number of increasingly large social networking services, including Renren (人人网), which bears some similarities to Facebook, and Qzone (QQ空间).
    Some educators prefer not to use established social networking sites, but to create their own spaces on other services, some of which are effectively hybrids of VLEs and social networking services. The most popular of these is the dedicated educational service Edmodo, which is similar in appearance and has many similar functions to Facebook, while Schoology is also widely used.
    Ning was also very popular with educators until the discontinuation of its free educational service in August 2010. For more information on Ning, see Educause's 7 Things You Should Know about Ning or, for a tutorial plus links to good examples of educational Ning sites, see Nik Peachey's Create Your Own Social Network in 7 Steps.
    Other formerly popular alternatives which have now ceased operation or changed focus include Grouply and
    {WhatAboutMe(2013).png} What About Me data visualisation of
    the content of Mark Pegrum's Facebook Timeline (August, 2013)Services such as Fakebook, The Wall Machine and the Google Docs template Historical Facebook Lesson help users to create fake Facebook profiles. Teachers might ask students to create fake profiles for fictional or historical characters as a way of encouraging them to think about digital identity management and digital safety.
    There are a number of social networking sites designed specifically for children. For a guide to these, see Common Sense Media's Social Networking for Kids (2011).
    There is also an increasingly well-known professional (social) networking service called LinkedIn, which is used to build networks of professional contacts. See the map of Mark Pegrum's LinkedIn network at the end
    of this screen.
    - ► going mobile - Common social networking services, including Facebook, Google+, MySpace and Renren (人人网), are available in mobile app versions. Many social networking services are
    page has now more heavily used on mobile devices than laptop or desktop computers, allowing usersbeen migrated to exploit geolocation technology to link updates, photos, reviews and so on to real-world locations. See the geosocial networking page of the E-language wiki for more information.
    - ► examples - Social networking services typically require users to sign up as members before they can enter, so it's rare to find publicly accessible examples of educational social networking pages or sites. However, there are some Ning-based examples on Nik Peachey's site (see under where above), and there are screen captures of Edmodo, Facebook, and Ning-based examples on the Student projects page of this wiki.
    - ► variations - Variations on social networking services include microblogging services. 43 Things, a social networking (or even social sharing) site with a difference, focuses on the sharing and comparing of life goals. There are a number of services, including FriendFeed, Hi, I'm and Spokeo, which allow you to pull together your various online profiles and/or those of your friends and acquaintances.
    - ► dangers - There are some safety and privacy issues with social networking services (though arguably the dangers are greater in other internet channels like IM). It's important to put in place a well-considered educational strategy which offers young people guidance on the possible risks. Links to useful resources can be found on the digital safety page. Other, related issues include 'collapsed contexts' (discussed by danah boyd), continuous partial attention (discussed by Linda Stone), and the self-marketing in which users are encouraged to engage on web 2.0 services in general but social networking services in particular (discussed by Alice Marwick).
    - ► more - For academic and journalistic references about social networking, see the E-learning references page. You'll also find current information in the E-learning tag cloud
    LinkedIn Map
    {LinkedIn (Aug 2013).png} Visualisation of Mark Pegrum's LinkedIn Network, with Colour-Coded Subnetworks (August 2013)
    Credits: The image at the top left shows the logo from the homepage of the Edmodo service. The Facebook data visualisation was created with Intel's What About Me?. The LinkedIn data visualisation was created with LinkedIn Maps.
    Contact: There's no such thing as a finished wiki. Like all wikis, this one is a work in progress and there will be changes from time to time in organisation, content and links. However, don't let that stop you from contacting me at any time with comments, suggestions or questions.

    (view changes)
    2:06 am

Sunday, May 7

  1. page search edited ... with web 2.0 {icon-intro1} {icon-blog1} {icon-chat1} {icon-dv1} {button-DS-blue1} {i…

    with web 2.0
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    - ► category -
    2.0: Search engines clearly predate web 2.0; for a history of the original search companies, see PPC Blog's History of Search infographic. However, search tools have been moving steadily in a more web 2.0 direction as they have become more user-centred, interactive and multimodal. They are arguably also moving in a web 3.0 direction with the arrival of social and personal search. Search is also available on mobile devices, though the move to the use of dedicated apps has arguably rendered search less important on mobile devices than on the web (see Going Mobile below).
    - ► what - Search engines help users to find material amongst the vast amount of online content. For tips on how to make better use of major search engines like Google, see Bright Side's 10 Ways to Search Google.
    Currently, key trends point towards greater differentiation, customisation and personalisation of search.
    As search becomes more personalised, the activity of searching may, ironically, become less common, as more and more relevant information flows automatically to individuals without the need for specific searches to find it.
    - ► why - For the foreseeable future we'll still need search engines. It's worth getting acquainted with the wide range of specialist search tools out there on the web. These are useful not only for teachers but also for students, who urgently need to develop appropriate information literacy skills to locate, navigate, evaluate and manage information online.
    - ► types - Key features of newer search services include those listed below. It should be noted

    Please note
    that Google offers a range of similar features to many of those detailed here. More information can be found under Google Search Features and Google Search Services & Tools. It's also worth trying out Google Advanced Search and, for those doing educational searches, Google Scholar.
    ► Customisation of search content: It is possible to determine
    the content and format of search results by using specific, dedicated search services like those listed below.
    Blogs: Dedicated blog search engines include Technorati and IceRocket (though the latter allows for other web searches as well). LisZen searches library blogs.
    Creative Commons: For a list of search services dedicated to finding Creative Commons or other copyright-free materials, see Creative Commons & free materials on the E-tools page.
    Flash/game search: Flash Card Flash searches for flashcards.
    Image/video search: FlickrStorm offers sophisticated, dedicated searches of Flickr, and flickrCC searches only for those Flickr photos available under a Creative Commons licence. VizBand provides a general search of YouTube, while YTTM (YouTube Time Machine) makes it easy to look for historical videos. Zanran searches for graphs and tables. Visual Loop helps you find infographics.
    PDF/document/book search: Pdfgeni searches for e-books in pdf format.
    Research: For lists of research-oriented search engines, see Jisc's Ten Search Engines for Researchers that Go Beyond Google and some of those listed in About Tech's Search the Invisible Web.
    Twitter: There is a range of Twitter search services available in addition to Twitter's own search service. Twistori (see image under microblogging) generates a list of recent Twitter posts containing keywords such as 'love', 'believe' and 'wish'.
    Metasearch: Metasearch services compile results from different sources; for example, Dogpile and WebCrawler, which compile results from Google, Yahoo, LiveSearch and Ask, allow users to search in categories such as audio, video or news. Spezify is another metasearch engine which presents a visual overview of results from different online services and sources. Trove, created by the National Library of Australia, also sorts results by media type. InstaGrok identifies key material on a given topic in multiple media formats, allows you to pin those materials to a mind map, and helps you record the materials found in a journal format.
    Other: Omgili is a search engine for discussion boards and forums. Social Mention searches social media. ZabaSearch helps you search for specific individuals on the net. FaceSearch, as the name suggests, searches for face pics. For online dictionaries and thesauruses, see the References page. 2lingual is a bilingual search engine underpinned by Google. Twurdy classifies search results by level of difficulty, suggesting which are appropriate for different reading ages.
    For a list of many other specialised search services, see Wikipedia's List of search engines.
    ► Customisation of search presentation: It is increasingly possible to choose among different presentation formats of search results, many of which are very different from traditional, linear lists of search results. There is currently some experimentation with mind map formats, as seen on services like Quintura for Kids or WikiMindMap, which shows Wikipedia results as a mind map. Image search engines with interesting visual presentation formats include the Flickr-based Tag Galaxy (see image above left) and the Flickr Related Tag Browser. Liveplasma maps film and musical preferences, underpinned by Amazon 's recommendations software. Many of the search services mentioned in the previous section also work with unusual visual presentation formats; examples include VizBand and InstaGrok.
    We're also just beginning to see a move towards the visual presentation of search itself (as opposed to the results of a search). For a good early example see Healthline's 3-dimensional Human Body Maps. Map-based search tools, such as several that work with Wikipedia, also fall into
    this category.
    ► Customisation of search context: It is also increasingly the case that the search context is defined in relation
    page has now been migrated to the individual doing the searching, and the other people to whom that individual is connected. This approach often goes under the name of social search. It is typically an automated function of the major search services, notably Google, which tailors search results to individuals on the basis of information tracked or inferred about them as a result of past searches, online connections, and online activities. The result is that two individuals searching for exactly the same topic using exactly the same search terms in Google may find that they receive very different results.
    A similar approach is used to determine what news items a Facebook user sees in their newsfeed. Of course, once information is filtered through users' social networks on Facebook, Twitter and other similar services, it flows automatically to them - which partly eliminates the need for searching, because relevant information is already immediately available.
    Indeed, the ultimate aim of social search is to obviate the need for searching at all, with search engines becoming more like prediction engines which anticipate users' needs, as seen in Google Now (see video below).
    It is also possible to set up personalised search services or portals, which search only defined areas of the web, notably with Google Custom Search.
    - ► going mobile - The major web search engines are available in mobile app versions; these include Google (incorporating Google Now), Yahoo! and Bing. As of mid-2013, Google is absolutely dominant in this market, being used for around 95% of mobile searches. However, given that smart device users have gravitated towards single-purpose apps and away from the mobile web, search is generally of lesser importance on mobile devices than on laptop and desktop devices.
    It is possible to find mobile apps by:
    searching within app stores such as iTunes (for Apple iOS apps) or Google Play (for Android apps)
    searching with general-purpose search engines like Google, Yahoo!, or Bing
    using specialised search services like Quixey, which searches for mobile, desktop, browser and web apps
    - ► variations - Google Zeitgeist offers an overview of common searches while Google Trends allows comparisons between search terms.
    - ► more - For academic and journalistic references about search, see the E-learning references page. You'll also find current information in the E-learning tag cloud.
    Credits: The image above left shows the results of a Tag Galaxy search of Flickr images. Thanks are due to Tracy Dexter-Ingram for the research search links, Niamh Fitzpatrick for the flickrCC link, and Belinda Shilkin for the Tag Galaxy link.
    Contact: There's no such thing as a finished wiki. Like all wikis, this one is a work in progress and there will be changes from time to time in organisation, content and links. However, don't let that stop you from contacting me at any time with comments, suggestions or questions.
    (view changes)
    11:15 pm